I spent almost 4 months on Caye Caulker fishing this time last year and got a good handle on the fishing.
The good news is bonefish are everywhere. If the wind is down then walk the front docks on the island and you will see some good fish on every dock. Easy to catch on freelined bait such as conch, trickier on fly or lure. Fish seem to be smaller on the back but even more common. Look for the guys cleaning lobster and the bonefish will be there in the 100's.
Permit are tougher. You need to get on a boat although rumour has it they can be caught on freelined crab on the flats either side of the split. As discussed above Raf is a good guy and will look after you. Piggy is also a good guide and put me onto a 70lb tarpon (on deadbait)
For tarpon check out the split on a night. This time of year the size of the fish is small(ish) but they offer great sport and are there in numbers. small shrimp fly, white bucktail or live sardine get the 20-30lbs fish. Look to the last of the incoming time. When the tide stops the place turns into an aquarium with the tarpon only feet out but almost impssible to catch. Big Jack and Cubera snapper have a go at the sardines every once and a while but they go deep when hooked and nearly always cut you off.
Other docks with lights on hold tarpon at night. During the day most docks hold a baracuda or two.
If you fancy some bait or live bait fishing or the reefs for a good mix of snappers, baracuda, spanish mackeral etc etc then give Wilbur a shout. On bait there is always a good chance or hitting an unstoppable jewfish or big ray.
You can great fish off the island but the timing becomes an issue. it is nice to get of the island and access other species with Raf, piggy, wilbur etc. if the weather is good then you can hit the far side of the reef. Big snapper and jew fish happen on bait. Dolphin, Kingfish and baracuda on lures and live bait. There is always the off chance or a billfish.
Give me a shout if you need any more advice. Lots of people pretend to be guides but only the above and bernard and parnell (I didnt fish with them but met them) are the only ones who do this as a real job
One word of caution. I upset some of the locals when I caught a few tarpon of the spit in front of the bar and made it look easy ( it wasnt!) it was felt that I affect the guides business! The guides themselves are proffesionals and just want to see you catch.
Pizza at habaneros is great. Burgers at the Sandbox are tasty. Lloyd at the sports bar is cool