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Joined: Oct 1999
Posts: 84,395
Marty Offline OP
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Crime has been on the rise in Belize for the past several years. Belize remains a high-crime country due largely to the extremely high murder rate per capita. Belize is officially the sixth most dangerous country in the world with an average of just over 39 homicides per 100,000 residents. Belize has the second highest murder rate in the Caribbean, the third in Central America, and the fifth in the Americas. Belize set new national records for murders in 2009 and 2010. Gang violence, still largely confined to Belize City, is a significant contributor to the high murder rate. There were 125 murders recorded for 2011, four less than 2010, likely due to the gang truce in Belize City that began in September 2011. However, even though the number of murders dipped, ending a three-year trend of new records for murders, the murder rate actually increased slightly, due to a slight decrease in the population. A government of Belize (GOB)-supported gang truce was agreed to in September 2011 and dramatically reduced the intentional homicides during the final four months of 2011. There were also highly-publicized raids in known gang areas by the Gang Suppression Unit (GSU). There were only nine murders reported in the 100 days following the truce. The gang truce will undoubtedly have an impact on violent crime in Belize City in 2012.

In 2011, Belize experienced the spread of violent crime to the north and west of the country. Previously, the majority of violent crime largely occurred in the poor and violent southwest of Belize City. The remainder of the country had remained generally immune to the shocking levels of crime confined to the geographically tiny community in Belize City. The spread of violent crime to the north and west has been a significant development. There were 14 murders reported in the north in Orange Walk and 17 murders reported in Belmopan, San Ignacio, and Benque in the west. Several murders have been linked to home invasions, which are a permanent fixture of criminal life in Belize. An American businessman, Lawrence Johnson, was brutally murdered in Cayo in November 2011 during a home invasion.

Belize has also become the popular destination of choice for fugitives fleeing the criminal justice system in the United States. In 2011, 14 fugitives were located, arrested, and expelled to the United States by the Regional Security Office in joint operations with the Special Branch of the Belize Police Department.

Criminal perpetrators remain emboldened and are not deterred by the risk of confrontation.

Belmopan City, home to the U.S. Embassy since 2006, located in the Cayo District in the center-west of the country, experienced increases in violent criminal activity. Two separate diplomatic missions were targets of break-ins. Local Chinese-owned businesses were also the target of violent crimes. A local restaurant, located less than a mile from the U.S. Embassy, was robbed in November, and the storeowner was shot. Another storeowner in Belmopan killed a known Belize-city gang member as the perpetrator fled his store after robbing it. These crimes are taking place in a city with a population of just 13,000.

The majority of crimes are "property" crimes such as robbery, theft, burglary, muggings, and pick-pocketing. In 2011, Belize experienced a reported increase in rapes, burglaries, and regular thefts. However, there was a decrease in reported robberies. Often decreases are attributed to simply a lack of reporting of these crimes.

Criminal perpetrators regularly carry firearms although the number of firearms seized in gun-related crimes declined by about four percent in 2011. In the past several years, Belize has had multiple incidents of high-powered military precision firearms falling into the hands of criminal elements. There have also been credible reports of gang members acquiring and using grenades in attacks in 2008 and 2009. There were no attacks involving grenades in 2011, but local law enforcement is fearful that grenades may still be in the arsenals of some of the larger, more established gangs. In October 2011, the most significant incident to date occurred when 42 weapons were stolen from the Belize Defense Force (BDF) headquarters in Ladyville. These weapons included M-16 and M4 rifles along with 9mm pistols. Besides a significant embarrassment to the BDF, this incident represented a clear and present danger to all military, local law enforcement, and citizens of Belize. To date, only six weapons have been recovered. In 2009, a Belize Defense Force (BDF) M16 was stolen by a BDF member and sold to a well-known drug dealer in Belize, who was apprehended in February 2010 in possession of the weapon.

Many of the safest places in Belize are the off-shore cayes (islands), which are some of the major tourist destinations. While crime still exists on the cayes, it is much less frequent and generally non-violent. Crime on the cayes is generally petty and crimes of opportunity that target tourists or more affluent long-term residents.

Much of the reported crime in Belize occurs on the main land, and 2011 saw a rash of violent criminal incidents in the north and west of Belize. In January 2011, a Swedish tourist was robbed at gunpoint in Belize City. She had cash and her passport stolen. In September 2011, an American female was raped and robbed after bicycling on the Stann Creek district highway. In August 2011, an American female was robbed and briefly held hostage in her home in the Cayo district by local men who stole nearly $6,000 worth of jewelry and electronics.

Belize offers an immense variety of tourist destinations, many of which are located in remote parts of the country. The easy pace found in Belize can lull one into forgetting that criminals will work wherever and whenever it is to their advantage. Tourists have been robbed while visiting archeological sites, and occasional violent crimes have occurred at resort areas on both mainland Belize and the cayes. Illicit activities in remote areas can quickly involve the innocent tourist. It is prudent to assume that safety procedures and requirements at tourist destinations are not up to U.S. standards and careful consideration given prior to engaging in the activity.

Public transportation can be problematic and unreliable. Taxi stands or plazas are located throughout major cities and villages and can be contacted by phone. Certain basic rules and precautions apply. Do not accept rides in vehicles that are not authorized taxis (taxis have green license plates, but perhaps few other markings), and do not ride in a taxi with occupants than just the driver. Taxis should generally only be hailed from reputable locations such as hotels and restaurants. It is always preferable to travel with an acquaintance. There have been reports of sexual assault on unaccompanied females committed by taxi drivers. Public buses in Belize are prone to safety and security problems and should be avoided. Buses are in poor operating condition, and drivers are often observed exceeding the speed limits and passing other vehicles at locations where it is unsafe to do so. Water taxis are often overcrowded and lack basic safety equipment.

Road Safety

Road conditions are generally very poor at best and hazardous at worst. The primary highways, Northern, Western, and Hummingbird (southern) highways, are in generally better condition (paved) than most roads, but these are still very narrow, two-lane highways. The highways are infrequently lit, only occasionally have shoulders, and driving can be very dangerous, especially after dusk and during the frequent rain. These major thoroughfares are the only means to transit the country aside from a small plane. Consequently, pedestrians and bicyclists utilize the same roads day and night as buses, trucks, and cars. To better illustrate the unpredictability of these hazards; in January 2012, a pedestrian was observed pushing an individual in a wheelchair along the middle of the road heading northeast to Belize City.

It is highly recommended to avoid driving on the major highways in Belize after dark. The lack of lighting, hazards along the roadways, passing vehicles, along with local buses driving above the recommended speed limits all can create a potentially deadly situation. In 2011, there were several pedestrians and motorists killed at night along the highways. Buses were a major cause of some of the more spectacular accidents. The lack of emergency medical care only exacerbates the importance of exercising extreme caution when operating vehicles at night. The Belizean judicial system assumes any driver who strikes a pedestrian or bicyclist to be at fault until proven otherwise. Children, adults, bicyclists, and animals will cross the roadways with little or no notice given and without looking to ensure the path is clear.

Stray dogs also wander freely in close proximity to the many small villages along the roads. These are a significant hazard, and motorists have been killed in vehicle accidents while trying to avoid these animals.

Defensive driving is a critical necessity to navigate hazardous road conditions, which are only amplified during bad weather, and the poor driving habits of many local nationals and other permanent residents. Local drivers often use turn signals to signify different vehicle movements. For example, a left-hand turn signal in a vehicle ahead of you on the highway may be a signal for your car to pass on the left or it could indicate a left-hand turn by the vehicle ahead, or it could indicate a U-turn. Drivers should always use maximum follow distances to allow plenty of time to react to the unexpected.

Due to the absence of stoplights in most parts of the country, speed bumps are utilized to control speeds, especially in and around small villages and population centers. There are several different signs that indicate speed bumps, and some speed bumps are not marked at all. Speed bumps can be a significant hazard to vehicles and occupants, as they tend to be very large and damaging to vehicles that hit them too hard. Drivers should always be on the lookout for speed bumps, especially during dusk, dawn, and night driving and should also beware that vehicles will often slam on their breaks unexpectedly to try and avoid hitting a speed bump.

Traffic circles are used to take the place of traffic lights, similar to many other parts of the world. At traffic circles, you must yield to exiting traffic in the circle before proceeding and then signal before you exit to alert the vehicles behind you.

The Belize police regularly operate checkpoints, especially in and around Belize City and Belmopan. All personnel, including diplomats should stop at these checkpoints and fully cooperate with police. The police may ask you for a form of ID, which you should produce. Often times, the focus of the checkpoints is to ensure that the vehicles are properly insured or to spot-check the window tinting on cars to ensure that it is within the legal limit. There were no reported incidents in 2011 of false checkpoints or extortion of vehicles passing through these checkpoints.

Political Violence
Historical Perspective

Political violence does not regularly occur, though there have been significant incidents in the past. In the run-up to the municipal elections of 2012, there were no reported violent demonstrations. There have been a few peaceful protests where individuals were observed openly drinking and smoking what appeared to be marijuana, but the assemblies were without incident.

Regional Terrorism and Organized Crime

Overall, corruption, human smuggling and trafficking, the drug trade, money laundering, and organized gang activity remain significant criminal problems. Additionally, in many cases, these organized criminal organizations operate beyond the ability of the police to disrupt them. The prosecution of perpetrators is problematic based upon issues endemic to the Belize judicial system.

Civil Unrest

The government requires a license to hold a protest or demonstration, requested from the police department 24 hours before the start. There are no indications of sentiments that could lead to unrest, and Americans are normally only affected by an Embassy Emergency Message that directs them to avoid the area of the demonstration.

The last protest of note was in 2009 by cane farmers against Belize Sugar Industries in Orange Walk that turned violent. Approximately 1,000 protesters successfully shut down the Northern Highway, effectively severing the northern districts from the remainder of the country and disrupting the main artery of vehicular traffic, commerce, and trade with Mexico. The demonstration culminated in a violent clash between the Belize Police Department and the protesters. The violence resulted in the death of one protester, who was shot and killed by the police, and injuries to two Belize police officers and eight protesters. The government intervened in the dispute and negotiated an end to the demonstration.

Post-Specific Concerns
Environmental Hazards

The most likely natural disaster is a hurricane, and ever since Hurricane Hattie destroyed much of Belize City in 1961, Belize pays particular attention to tropical storms in the western Caribbean. June through November is hurricane season in the western Caribbean, with the September to October period the most likely time for tropical storms and hurricanes. Belize has very limited capability to meet such a disaster, and the vulnerability is well known. Although the Belize National Emergency Management Office (NEMO) has analyzed Belize's vulnerability to a hurricane, preparations in response to their reports remain insufficient. Hurricane shelters exist along the coastline, but limited emergency food and water supplies would be overwhelmed by the high number of potential shelter seekers. Waterways require frequent dredging, so flooding would be exacerbated. Belize may have an evacuation plan in principal, but practical implementation would likely be difficult at best. In October 2010, Hurricane Richard slammed into the coast, resulting in power outages in 65 percent of the country, extensive flooding, and the blockage of the major highways. The majority of severe damage to property did not occur on the coast of Belize but rather inland in the Cayo District.

Minor earthquakes have occurred, notably in southern Belize. The most recent severe earthquake was a 7.1 magnitude quake with an epicenter 140 miles off the coast of Belize and Honduras in May 2009. Electricity in the southern portion of the country was temporarily knocked out; however, damage was minimal, and there were no reported casualties. Several minor after-shocks were felt for several weeks after with minimal effect.

There are no active volcanoes in Belize.

Because Belize is tropical and has regular rainfall, clogged drainage and waterways combined with urban growth lead to frequent flooding of roadways, even during the "dry" season. Flooding has not been disastrous, but a severe storm or hurricane will cut off vehicular movement in many coastal and inland areas.

There is a significant risk of forest fires at the end of the dry season, typically April and May.

Much of Belize is protected rainforest, and there is always the threat of attack by indigenous animals. In 2010, an American and Belizean were killed by jaguars in separate incidents.


To date, Belize is the only country in Central America to have no kidnapping of tourists or foreigners for ransom.

Joined: Oct 1999
Posts: 84,395
Marty Offline OP
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US State Dept Narcotics Report on Belize 2012

In 2011, the United States added Belize to the list of Major Illicit
Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing Countries. Belize was
susceptible to the transshipment of illegal drugs due to its position
along the Central American isthmus between the United States,
Mexico, and the drug-producing countries of South America.
Large stretches of unpopulated jungles on its borders with
Guatemala and Mexico, and a relatively unpatrolled coastline that
includes hundreds of small islands and atolls, made controlling
the territory difficult in 2011. The remote jungles of Belize
provided a hospitable environment for growing cannabis. Drug
trafficking and related crimes increasingly threatened the stability
of Belize.

Belize generally tolerated the use of cannabis. Drug possession
penalties included a $5,000 fine for first-time offenses and, albeit
infrequently, a three-year prison sentence for second offenses.
Crack cocaine was the second most abused drug in Belize
according to a 2008 Central American Integration System (SICA)
study, a finding re-validated by the National Drug Abuse Council
in 2011. Synthetic drugs were not widely used or manufactured in
Belize, although precursor chemicals transited Belize en-route to

Despite enhanced efforts to monitor coastal waters, limited funds,
equipment, and personnel hampered the Belize Coast Guard
(BCG) and the Anti-Drug Unit (ADU). Belize's counternarcotics
efforts were limited by corruption and deficiencies in intelligence
gathering and analysis, the judicial sector, and political will. Belize
is a party to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.

Joined: Oct 1999
Posts: 84,395
Marty Offline OP
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Belize Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism

The Mutual Evaluation Report (MER) of Belize summarises the anti-money laundering /combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) measures in place in Belize at the time of the on-site visit (April 12th to 23rd 2010). The Report sets out Belize's level of compliance with the FATF 40 + 9 Recommendations which are contained in Table 1 of the Report.

CLICK HERE for the full report, a 1.3mb PDF

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