Different layers of crops are planted in layers to create a food forest with diverse microclimates.
A canopy layer that consists of tall fruit and nut trees such as chestnuts, black walnuts, lychee, mango, avocado.
A lower tree layer of dwarf fruit and nut trees such as coconut, apples, pears, oranges, carambola.
A shrub layer of fruit bushes such as berries, banana and papaya.
An herbaceous layer of culinary and medicinal herbs (peppers, cilantro, ramps), companion plants, bee-and poultry-loving plants (dandelion, sunflower, amaranth).
A ground cover of edible plants that function as a living mulch (garlic, onion, basil, mustard, clover, turnips, parsnips, white clover, phacelia, spinach).
A rhizosphere layer that consists of root crops (cassava, taro/colocasia, sweet potatoes, potatoes, ginger, turmeric) and mushrooms.
A vertical layer of vines and climbers (beans, passionfruit).